Enhancing Effective Teaching and Learning of Social Studies Concepts in Secondary Schools through Reinforcement

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Department of Social Studies, The College of Education, Lanlate. Oyo State:

Introduction; Concept of Learning; Factors affecting learning; Hull's theory of learning; Application of Hull's theory to classroom situation; Reinforcement; Thorndike theory of reinforcement; Application of Thorndike's theory to classroom situation; Conclusion; Recommendations; References.

Social Studies can potentially influence individuals' intellectual, social development, and personal growth. There is therefore the need for reinforcement for effective learning to take place. This paper, therefore, explores the concept, phases, and factors of learning as well as Hull's Theory of Learning, Thorndike's Theory of Reinforcement, and their applications to the classroom for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies. It was observed that the two theories strongly support the use of reinforcement in teaching-learning situations and that punishment is less effective in achieving and maintaining a desired behavior in learners.